Global Returnable Asset Identifier (GRAI)

The GRAI is one of two GS1 Keys for asset identification. This GS1 Key is especially suitable for the management of reusable transport items, transport equipment, and tools and can identify these returnable assets by type and if needed also individually for tracking and sorting purposes.


GRAIs can enable tracking of returnable assets.

Use GRAIs to identify returnable assets like trays, crates, or pallets. They can be used for tracking purposes or can be part of a hiring or rental system.

  • In distribution processes, returnable assets are used by companies to package, protect and transport physical products, and are reused for multiple deliveries. Examples include crates, bread trays, pallets and beer kegs. Returnable assets can be owned by either trading partner or can be rented via a system where companies collaborate on the use of these assets

  • The GRAI can be encoded in a barcode or EPC/RFID tag that can be scanned to automatically register the returnable asset’s movements, for example, when used to ship goods or when returned empty

  • The GRAI (with serial number) can also be used to manage regular maintenance and record repairs

  • When used electronically, the GRAI helps companies more easily track and manage their valuable returnable assets. The GRAI also provides companies with greater supply chain visibility; when a company knows which goods are contained in a returnable asset, it can track the asset and, at the same time, track the goods it contains.

Check digit: This is calculated using a check digit calculator.


Fact sheet

The GRAI is fully compatible with ISO/IEC 15459-5.